Set up SSH for use with Git
Secure Shell (SSH) is a secure way to connect with code repository hosts like GitLab, Bitbucket and of course GitHub. While HTTPS connections require a username and password credentials, SSH instead uses a pair of cryptographically generated keys.
The two keys are public and private, the public key is the one that can be stored on the code repository/hosting provider (GitHub, GitLab, and the like) and the private one stays secure on my machine.
I’ll first check that there are no
rsa files here before continuing,
use with the following bash command:
ls -al ~/.ssh
If there’s nothing there then I generate a new keygen with:
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C email@example.com # add your email address 👍
The options here,
-t is the type
-b is for the bits being
used in this case
-C is a comment to tie my email address
to the key.
I’ll then be prompted to give a passphrase for the key, in this case I’ll leave it blank, fi you’re following along and want to add a passphrase then check out the SSH keys with passwords section.
I’ll add the SSH key to the SSH agent with:
# for mac and Linux from bash, also from Windows Git Bash eval "$(ssh-agent -s)" # for Git Bash on Windows eval `ssh-agent -s` # fir Fish shell eval (ssh-agent -c)
Then add the RSA key to SSH with:
Copy my key to clipboard with one of the following:
clip < ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub # Windows cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub # Linux pbcopy < ~/.ssh/id_github.pub # Mac
Say I already have projects on my machine and I have decided to use SSH in place of HTTPS connections with Git there there’s a few things I’ll need to do to my existing projects that use HTTPS for authentication.
On the GitHub repository for the projct I’ll pick the Clone with SSH option from the Clone or download section on the page.
Once I have taken the link from there I’ll need to set the repo remote to the SSH URL.
I can use the Git remote verbose command (
git remote -v) it will
list the origin, something like this:
git remote -v origin https://github.com/username/repo-name-here.git (fetch) origin https://github.com/username/repo-name-here.git (push) # if the repo is a fork it will show (remote) too
I can now set the new origin URL with this command:
git remote set-url origin firstname.lastname@example.org:username/repo-name-here.git
Where username is the
username of the repo owner and
repo-name-here is the name of that user’s repository.
Once the public key has been added to GitHub I can authenticate with:
ssh -T email@example.com
That’s it! I can now start using SSH and not have to authenticate each time I want to push a commit to GitHub!
If you add a password to your SSH key you will find yourself entering the password to authenticate on each [pull, push] operation. This can get tedious, especially if you have a long password in your keys.
Add the following line to your
Open or create the
~/.ssh/config file with:
The SSH agent will also need to be started on each terminal session
now to store the keys in, add the following to your
[ -z "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" ] && eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
~/.bashrc file with:
Now the SSH agent will start on each terminal session and you will
only be prompted for the password on the first
There may be some permissions issues, I have generally found that setting the following permissions to the files and folders usually helps:
# change to the .ssh/ folder .ssh/ # set permission sudo chmod 600 id_rsa # change out to set the folder permissions ../ sudo chmod 700 .ssh/ # authenticate with GitHub ssh -T firstname.lastname@example.org